RMA Music and/as Process Study Group
3rd Annual Conference
6th June, Goldsmiths, University of London
with the support of the Contemporary Music Research Unit at Goldsmiths
Registration is now live! To register, follow this link.
This year the Music and/as Process study group extends our focus on practice-led research by hosting a day of practice-led presentations as a mini-festival. The day will take in composition, performance and lecture recitals and include a keynote lecture given by Dr Bryn Harrison (University of Huddersfield).
Spread the word! Download a poster here: MP 2015 Poster v2.
Call for Works and Lecture-Recitals
Proposals for works and lecture recitals of between 10 and 30 minutes are invited from scholars, composers and practitioners in all areas of process in music.
Proposals might include:
· The performance presentation of new or existing compositions
· Performances of works which involve process from any period of music
· Lecture recitals demonstrating musical processes
· Process-based improvisations
· Composer-performer collaborative presentations
Proposals should include all of the details of the proposed work and presentation, including:
· the names of the composer(s)/performer(s)
· the title, length, and instrumentation of the work
· a short description of the format of the presentation
· a full list of any technical requirements (including instruments; NB we are unlikely to be able to accommodate proposals that need a very large amount of equipment or a very long set-up time)
· a description of the role of process in the music, of no more than 200 words
Please send your proposals by email to Lauren Redhead: firstname.lastname@example.org
Extended deadline for proposals: 25th March 2015
Notification of successful presentations can be expected in April.
In your proposal please clearly indicate all of the presenters, including any performers if you do not intend to perform your own work. Unfortunately, the study group is not able to provide any financial assistance to attend the conference, or to support the creation or performance of works at the conference. All presenters and delegates (including performers who wish to attend the conference), will be required to pay the conference registration fee. This has not yet been fixed but is unlikely to exceed £10 for members of the RMA and £15 for others. The support of the CMRU ensures that the conference is free for all Goldsmiths staff and students.
Music and/as Process Study Group session
RMA Annual Conference 2015
9-11 September, University of Birmingham
We are also hosting a session in the RMA Annual Conference this year, University of Birmingham, 9-11 September. Here are the details of the Music and/asProcess session, we’ll look forward to seeing you there!
Presenters: Dr James Saunders (Bath Spa University), Dr Fabrice Fitch (Royal Northern College of Music), Dr Larry Goves (Royal Northern College of Music), Dr Richard Glover (Wolverhampton University), Dr Steve Gisby (independent composer), Cara Stacey (University of Cape Town/School of Oriental and African Studies).
Click through to presenter abstracts and biographies here.
This session incorporates two major areas of interest for the Music and/as Process Study Group: music which is composed from, by, or can be said to be entirely, processes and practice-led or practice-as research. The session will comprise the presentation of research in composition, drawn from a call for works amongst the study group members, which includes or is based on process from members of the study group working across a variety of genres, styles and approaches in contemporary music. Music as process represents a compositional trend or tradition in contemporary music which has been most readily recognised in minimalist musics but also includes serialism, algorithmic composition, the inclusion of pre-tonal devices and non-western influences in music, and improvisatory approaches. As a result, today the composition of and using process transcends genre and represents an important line of enquiry for composer-researchers and improviser-researchers.
This session aims to represent the composers in the Music and/as Study Group in an innovative way. It creates the opportunity for them to present their work in a way which is particularly appropriate to research in this area, highlighting both the research and practice components of their work equally. The members of the Music and/as Process Study Group are investigating many relatively new areas or practice and research; in particular the spaces between improvisation and composition and the boundaries between practice and process. Recent areas of interest have emerged as devised music, collaboration, and process in relation to graphic, text and open notation.
Important considerations in the presentation of practice-led research are that the music should be allowed to speak for itself and that that the music should be recognised as the research itself, rather than merely a presentation or demonstration of research knowledge. These two considerations are reflected in the non-traditional presentation of the work of practitioner-researchers in this session. It attempts to bridge the gap between research presentations and practice presentations in a lecture recital style structure which will be part way between a concert and a conference session. Composers will offer short introductions to their music, accompanied by critical programme notes. Their works will then be heard in full either as live performances or recordings. Such presentation of work has been trialled at the annual Music and/as Process conferences leading to fruitful discussion about issues in and around the music presented, and the perception by the composers involved that the research aims of their work have been clearly articulated.
Since the initial lockdown in February/March 2020, there has been a growing appearance of online forms of music making as communal events for collective music making, or as an alternative to the live, public concert. Examples of such work includes: Free Range Orchestra, Montrose Composers Club, Bastard Assignments, Pan Y Rosas Discos, Jefferson Park EXP, Peter Nagle’s digital drone orchestra using highfidelity.com and the Free Range Concert Series.
Due to the lack of live music making, both in concert and privately, we consider this to be a burgeoning and emergent form of music making, that has had to develop in a short space of time to identify and therefore adapt to the many technical challenges.
This emergent form of experimental music making comprises:
- The consideration of practicalities under lockdown circumstances.
- The influence these online technologies have on aesthetic considerations.
- The growth of online concerts.
- The engagement with a communal form of communication and interaction with software that is by its very nature prone to glitches and latency.
- The wider international potential of any online collaboration.
Working within these parameters has contributed to defining an aesthetic environment that sets itself apart from the conventional live situation, from which potentially genuinely new musically creative work can appear.
In June 2021, Music and/as Process will be hosting an online event that focuses on new work that has been specifically composed for remote/collective forms. Alongside performances, the event will feature discussions focusing on the process(es) and experiences of realising such works.
You are invited to submit sketches / pieces / papers that address and explore the technological challenges and aesthetic considerations of remote network performance.
These may include, but are not limited to:
- Critical aesthetics from within the medium itself.
- Creative work which addresses latency, glitches, synchronisation of multiple audio streams, software and hardware issues.
- Collaborative creative practices, in which, for example, projects have developed over time amongst teams of performers/composers/improvisers.
- Issues regarding the quality of participation, and their possible solutions.
- Networked music performance practises including the functionalities of individual platforms.
We are looking to present music which is created bespoke for the remote networking medium, rather than arranging pre-existing music for this format.
Proposals should include, as appropriate:
- A copy of the score / sketches, as a PDF.
- A short description (250 words) of the way/s in which the practice explores online performance and remote communication.
- A 250 word abstract if delivering a paper.
- Links to documentation (video or audio) of previous performances.
For proposals featuring live performance, the piece can involve between 2 to 10 people – including yourself. Pre-recorded performances can involve as many people as you wish.
There will be approximately 30 minutes for each presentation, which can be used as desired.
Please send your submissions to email@example.com
Deadline for submissions: 23:59 (GMT) on 26th of March, 2021.
Decisions will be communicated mid April.
The RMA Music and/as Process Committee:
- Dr Steve Gisby (Independent researcher)
- Dr Richard Glover (Reader in Music at the University of Wolverhampton)
- Dr John Hails (Senior Lecturer and Reader in Music at Edinburgh Napier University)
- Sophie Stone (PhD candidate at Canterbury Christ Church University)
- Dr Alistair Zaldua (Independent researcher)
Registration for our conference at the ICMP on July 26th is now open.
To register, or for further information, please contact Steve Gisby at steve (dot) gisby@icmp (dot) ac (dot) uk
We look forward to welcoming you to London this summer.
Living Collaborative Processes
Call for Proposals
This year, we will be holding our annual event at the Institute of Contemporary Music Performance in London on Friday, 26th July.
This will not be a typical conference event as we have held before, but will focus on the process, and processes, of realising collaborative scores. Therefore the day will consist of workshops, discussion, and eventual performance of the music selected.
We are interested in receiving musical works that designate and identify collaborative processes as a central part of their realisation. These pieces may be either almost completed, or newly completed works that can be workshopped, and discussed during the day. and performed by delegates and members of the Music and/as Process study group. As far as possible, and to allow as many pieces as is practical, each piece should have a maximum duration of 10-12 minutes.
The pieces may include one or a subset of the following characteristics:
- Collaborative notation
- Collective composition working practice
- Collective decision-making in rehearsal
- Distributed creativity
- Formation and operation of collectives
- Graphic notation
- Game pieces
- Live group decision-making in performance
- Uses of technology to mediate collective behaviours and decision-making
The selected pieces will be those that can be learned and performed over the course of a single day. By the end of the day we hope to document these performances onto video and audio.
Proposals: Please send the following to Dr Steve Gisby: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Copy of the score, or scores, as a pdf
- A short description (250 words) of the collaborative aspect of the piece
- An outline of the resources or instruments required
Due to the event format, there can be no guarantee of the availability of specific ensembles or instruments, and very complicated electronic set-ups are also unlikely to be feasible in the time on the day.
Deadline for proposals: 23:59 – Friday May 10th, 2019.
Decisions will be communicated by 31st May 2019.
We welcome both composers and performers to this event, specifically those intending to take part in realising the scores chosen. Registration will be open to anyone who would like to perform and workshop the music, regardless of whether they have composed a piece.
Registration will be open from the beginning of June.
Unfortunately, neither the Study Group nor ICMP are able to provide any financial assistance to attend the conference. The conference will be free of charge, however lunch will not be provided.
Music and/as Process committee: Steve Gisby, Richard Glover, John Hails, Lauren Redhead, Sophie Stone, and Alistair Zaldua.
The Institute of Contemporary Music Performance
1B Dyne Road, London, NW6 7XG
We’re happy to share the details of our themed session at the RMA annual conference this year. The theme of manifestoes has yielded some very interesting and diverse results and talking points, and we’re looking forward to a rich discussion. Below are the titles of the manifestoes/positions that will be delivered and the biographies of our contributors.
Introduction and chair
Dr Lauren Redhead (Goldsmiths, University of London)
Dr Richard Glover (Wolverhampton University)
“How to Communicate Music as a Gradual Process”
Sophie Stone (Canterbury Christ Church University)
“Extended Duration Experimental Music”
Dr Cara Stacey (Independent Composer)
“Reflections on Composition and Ethnomusicology from a Southern African Perspective”
Keren Levi (Independent Choreographer) and Tom Parkinson (Royal Holloway, University of London)
“Footnotes for Crippled Symmetry: Making new work after Morton Feldman’s Crippled Symmetry in 2018 – a manifesto”
Dr Alistair Zaldua (Canterbury Christ Church University)
“The Processes of Translation”
Dr Lisa Busby (Goldsmiths, University of London)
“Protocols, Policies, and Proposals Performed”
Dr Matthew Sergeant (Bath Spa University)
Lauren Redhead is Senior Lecturer in 20th and 21st Century Music at Goldsmiths, University of London from 1st September 2018. Her primary research interests are the aesthetics and socio-semiotics of music. She is a composer of experimental music and a performer of music for organ and electronics.
Richard Glover is a composer and writer. His music explores gradual process, perception in reductionist sound environments and experimental approaches to notation. His portrait CD Logical Harmonies was released in 2013, and his music has been performed internationally by ensembles such as the Bozzini Quartet and musikFabrik, among others. He has published book chapters and articles on Phill Niblock, minimalism and technology, and the perception of sustained tone music. He is Reader in Music at the University of Wolverhampton, UK.
Sophie Stone is a composer of experimental music and is currently studying for a practice research PhD at Canterbury Christ Church University with Dr Lauren Redhead and Prof Matt Wright. Her research explores extended duration music and the performance situations, compositional strategies and the uses and types of silence that surround it. Sophie’s recent projects include a solo organ work titled Amalgamations (2016), “As Sure as Time…” (2016-?), an ongoing series for spoken voices, and Continuum (2017-2018), an electroacoustic 90-minute immersive installation. Her work has been presented in concerts, as installations and at conferences in Canterbury, Liverpool, Leeds, Huddersfield, Edinburgh and London. In 2018, New Sound: International Journal of Music published a co-authored article by Sophie, Dr Steve Gisby, Dr Alistair Zaldua and Dr Lauren Redhead on ‘Performing Temporal Processes’, which was presented at the Royal Musical Association Annual Conference at the University of Liverpool in 2017.
Cara Stacey is a South African musician, composer and researcher. She is a pianist and plays southern African musical bows (umrhubhe, uhadi, makhweyane). Her debut album ‘Things that grow’ features Shabaka Hutchings, Seb Rochford, Ruth Goller, and Crewdson (released in September 2015, Kit Records). In 2018, she released ‘Ceder’, a collaborative duo project with Peruvian musician Camilo Ángeles. Cara collaborates with percussionist and drummer Sarathy Korwar in the project Pergola and is a member of the Cape Town-based Shh..Art Ensemble. Cara holds a PhD in African music from the University of Cape Town, South Africa, a Masters in musicology (Edinburgh), and an MMus in musical performance from SOAS (London). Her doctoral research explored the makhweyane braced-bow of Swaziland. She has been an NRF Freestanding Doctoral scholar, a Commonwealth Split-Site scholar, and the recipient of funding from the Oppenheimer Memorial Trust and the University of Cape Town.
Choreographer Keren Levi (the Netherlands) and composer Tom Parkinson (UK) have made seventeen pieces together between Gravel in 2000 and Footnotes for Crippled Symmetry in 2018. This has included Territory (2004), CoupleLike (2005), The Dry Piece (2012) and Clubbing (2015). Their work is often concerned with creating other meeting points between music and dance than emotional or narrative affect or cross-modal metaphor. One of the recurring themes in their pieces is the performance of music as choreography. This is not to create a hybrid art form but to situate the performing body in an alternative disciplinary context.
Alistair Zaldua is a composer of contemporary and experimental music and has written work for: chamber ensemble, solo instrument, live electronics, audio/visual installation, and orchestra. His work has received performances from highly acclaimed ensembles and performers such as: ensemble surplus, Ensemble Aventure, Ensemble Modern, Composers Slide Quartet, and Ian Pace, Mark Knoop, Jonathan Powell, Rei Nakamura, Adam Linson, Lauren Redhead. His work consists of both fixed notated scores, as well as openly notated work and has been performed both internationally at festivals for contemporary music: Borealis (Bergen, Norway, 2014), UsineSonore (Malleray-Bevilard, Switzerland, 2012), REM (Bremen, 2011), Delmenhorst (2010), Quantensprünge ZKM (Karlsruhe, 2007 & 2008), Freiburger Frühling (2006), Música Nova (Sao Paolo, 2006), and Núcleo Música Nueva (Montevideo, 2006). Alistair currently teaches at Canterbury Christ Church University.
Lisa Busby is a Scottish composer, vocalist, DJ and Senior Lecturer is Music at Goldsmiths, University of London, and part of the core teaching team in popular music praxis. Lisa performs and composes with a number of ensembles (Rutger Hauser, The Nomadic Female DJ Troupe) and has a solo practice that situates itself across the boundaries of electronic music, improvisation, performance art, and pop music/culture. She often works across media in long duration forms, performance video, text based score, installation and site specific performance. Throughout her work she is interested in exploring the fringes of song; how pop culture artefacts can be set in new and unusual contexts; and the appropriation of everyday objects and scenarios with a particular specialism in using domestic playback media and objects as instruments. Her research practice focuses on illuminating process; ‘availablism’ and lo-fi intermediality; DIY scenes and the ‘no audience underground’.
Matthew Sergeant is a composer and senior lecturer in composition at Bath Spa University. Matthew’s research currently focuses on the materiality of sound and the agency of non-sentient things. He is currently the director of SoMa, the Sonic Materialities Laboratory at Bath Spa University, the current chair of the Royal Musicological Association Sonic Makers’ Research Group co-founder of the pan-institutional Music and Materialisms research network. Current projects include co-editing volumes on theories and practices of contemporary music and on music and time. Matthew studied composition at the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM) before reading for his PhD at the Centre for Research in New Music (CeReNeM) at the University of Huddersfield. He has held teaching positions at both the University of Huddersfield and the Royal Northern College of Music and has given numerous guest lectures around the world.
Registration for this year’s conference is open! There are Early Bird discounts until 1st June, after which the price will increase slightly.
If you are a member of the Royal Musical Association, a currently registered student or an Early Career Researcher without a current institutional affiliation, you can register at a reduced rate. To register, click here.
If you are not a member of the Royal Musical Association, you can register at the full rate, here.
If you’d like to join the Royal Musical Association, you can do so here.
We look forward to seeing you at this year’s conference!
The provisional schedule for the 6th Annual Conference, which takes place at Edinburgh Napier University from June 29th to July 1st, is now available here – MusPro 2018 – Schedule v3
This year’s event will include presentations and performances from Andy Ingamells, Tom Parkinson, Claire Brady, Christel Philp, John Hails, Ben Horner, Pernille Ravn, Isaac Fernandez, Jannis van de Sande, Zubin Kanga, Neil Luck, Emmanuelle Waeckerle, Natasa Penezic, Tijana Popovic Mladjenović, Richard Glover, David Pocknee, Steve Gisby and Lauren Redhead.
Call for Manifestoes for RMA Annual Conference Session: New Manifestoes for Process in Music. The study group is seeking proposals for manifestoes as 5 minute videos or 500 word statements for a conference session. Please send your manifesto to Dr Lauren Redhead (email@example.com) by 1st June if you would like to be included.
NB: it is likely that the study group will not be able to include all manifestoes received, but will consider those not part of the session for the future publication derived from it. Please also note the commitment to gender balance in this session; women and non-binary artists are especially encouraged to apply.
The Music and/as Process Study group has frequently cited approaches to process in music by Reich (1975) and Nyman (1974). While not the only approaches or descriptions of musical processes, these are some of the most commonly cited and understood examples. These references might act as touchstones for those with an interest in musical processes, but they do not encompass the full range of approaches to music and/as process that the study group represents. More recent approaches to process in music, such as those that can be found in Gottschalk (2016) or Saunders et al (2009) are also of interest to those scholars who contribute to the study group, but are essentially historical and/or analytical, describing the process-based approaches to music that have been taken, but not necessarily defining those that will, or might be taken. The practices of particular composers, such as Tom Johnson, Pauline Oliveros, Christian Wolff, Phill Niblock, James Tenney and Éliane Radigue, to name a few examples, provides further points of contact but similarly examples or points of departure rather than approaches to musical processes for future study and creative practice. In addition, the activities of the study group have highlighted the need to further understand the impacts of current research upon perceptual and cognitive systems of processes in music.
Therefore, the aims of this session are threefold:
- to refresh the understanding of the scope and definition of musical processes within the study group by inviting provocative approaches to the topic,
- to re-examine the manifesto as a tool for artistic practice in music, and
- to promote performative approaches to musicology beyond the historical, analytical, and observational.
The session will comprise new manifestos addressing the topic of process in music.We welcome these from the members of the study group, and musicologists and creative artists with similar interests internationally. We also welcome and encourage practice-research and interdisciplinary or performative responses alongside the traditionally written or text-based. The selection process will prioritise diversity, with an expectation of selecting at least 50% female or non-binary scholars/artists. As such, it will attempt to address gender disparity in existing writing on musical processes as a secondary aim.
Each manifesto will be limited to 500 words or 5 minutes, to be delivered at the conference in person as a paper or performance, or as a video. The session will respond to these manifestos through invited respondents who will expand on the shared themes and approaches that may be found across the selected manifestos, and will suggest future directions for the study of process in music.
We are delighted to announce that our keynote speaker for this year’s conference will be Cornelius Schwehr.
Professor Schwehr studied with Walter Heck, Klaus Huber, Peter Förtig, Denise Lavenchy and Helmut Lachenmann, and lectures in composition, theory and film music at the Freiburg Musikhochschule. Between 2009 and 2017 he was the director of their Institute for Contemporary Music, having previously lectured at the Karlsruhe Musikhochschule and the Musikhochschule Winterthur in Switzerland.
A member of the Berlin Academy of Arts, his music includes a large number of chamber music pieces, many works for solo instrument, several orchestral pieces, and an opera, Heimat. He has also collaborated with various authors and directors, with over 30 works for film, radio and the stage,.
Published by Breitkopf und Härtel, Schwehr’s work has been performed in Berlin, Duisburg, Geneva, Graz, Innsbruck, Saarbrücken, Stuttgart, Warsaw, Witten and Zurich. He is the recipient of numerous awards, honours and grants, including from the Gaudeamus Music Week (1980) Ensemblia Competition of Mönchengladbach (1981), the Heinrich Strobel Stiftung of the South German Radio, the Baden-Württemberg Arts Council.
In his own words…
My work (in all genres) is most notably determined by the question of what we can learn from our tradition and what meaningful experiences does this still allow.
The question is not trivial: as I understand it, it addresses the central nerves of composition. However, it is not important to seek conclusions, it is more necessary to insist that this question is posed again and again.
In addition to this, I have become ever more aware of my work and findings with the relationship between music and language (both spoken and written). This theme has preoccupied my since I began composing.
More recently my concrete concerns are to take both word—which already consists of a unit made of both sound and meaning—with speech sound, and take speech sound at its word, and amidst this interplay, to uncover music and set it free.
Call for Papers/Lecture Performances
Conference: Music and Language Friday 29th June – Sunday 1st July, 2018
Edinburgh Napier University, School of Arts and Creative Industries, Merchiston Campus
We welcome proposals for contributions in the following formats:
- Paper (20 minutes + 10 minutes questions)
- Lecture Recital (30 minutes)
- Participatory lecture/workshop (30 minutes)
The theme of the conference is Music and Language, in both its spoken and written forms.
Whilst the Music and/as Process Study Group has previously been aimed towards the field of music, the call remains open to practitioners and researchers within the spoken arts, and sound poetry and beyond who are drawn towards an association with the theme.
Particular themes covered might include:
- Sound Poetry
- Linguistic processes in composition and new music performance
- Radio art (or Hörspiel)
- Concrete Poetry / Phonetic art / Lautpoesie
- Spoken/Written Language in the construction of new music/performance/creative work
- Interactive spoken word performance
Proposals should include all of the details of the proposed contribution:
- the name(s) of presenter(s)
- email address of presenter(s)
- affiliated academic institution
- title of paper/lecture-recital/workshop
- 200-word abstract
- [for participatory workshops only] description of the format of the workshop
- A full list of any technical requirements and other resources
Please send your proposals by email to Alistair Zaldua: firstname.lastname@example.org
Deadline for proposals: Friday, 09 March 2018 Notification of successful presentations can be expected in late March 2018.
In your proposal please clearly indicate all of the presenters, including any performers if you do not intend to perform your own work. Unfortunately, the study group is not able to provide any financial assistance to attend the conference, or to support the creation or performance of works at the conference.
All presenters and performers will be required to register and pay the conference fee. At present we are working to keep this as low as possible, and we do not anticipate it being higher than £50, with a discount for students, unaffiliated ECRs, and RMA members.
The study group have successfully proposed a themed session for the RMA’s 53rd Annual Conference at the University of Liverpool. The conference takes place from Thursday 7th until Saturday 9th September 2017 and the session will take place on Saturday 9th September from 14.00-15.30
Performers are invited to take part in the session in two of the pieces that will be presented. These are:
Sophie Stone “As Sure As Time…” (2016, for any number of speaking voices; performance directed by the composer)
Mathias Spahlinger eigenzeit from vorschläge (1992-3, for any number of performers with objects; performance directed by Alistair Zaldua)
Programme notes for both pieces are below.
If you would like to join one or both of the performances in the session, please contact Lauren Redhead <email@example.com> who will be chairing the session, by 30th June 2017.
Anyone who attends the RMA conference, including those who perform in the session need to register. Unfortunately, the study group is unable to offer funds to support this. The conference fees are very reasonable, particularly the ‘early bird’ rates, and a discount is offered for members of the RMA. Details of the conference and fees can be found here: https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/music/rma2017/
“As sure as time…” is part of an ongoing series of performances that use the same score. It is a spoken word piece that can be performed by one to four vocalists, and includes a variety of structural elements, sound/vocal techniques and movements. The score consists of a quote from Harper Lee’s Go Set a Watchman (London: William Heinemann, 2015): “As sure as time, history is repeating itself, and as sure as man is man, history is the last place he’ll look for his lesson”. The work allows for performer interpretation with the vocalist performing an individual compositional process; where there are several performers, several compositional processes occur simultaneously. Rather than a traditional concert performance, the listener should experience the work as an installation in a gallery or other environment, allowing them to explore the environment as they wish to, talk and enter/leave when they like. When observed in its entirety, the series presents a new sense of extended duration with long silences separating the performances and the totality being the performance of the work itself. The work also highlights the numerous interpretations of silence as silences of unpredictable length are used within the performances and between each performance; the interpretation of silence is thus questioned as it never truly exists.
eigenzeit is one of over 25 concepts contained in Mathias Spahlinger’s work (written in 1993) vorschläge (suggestions). The instructions read:
“find or invent possible objects or performance methods that are barely modifiable regarding their tempo, rhythm, and total duration; and which, once they have begun, cannot be further influenced; and whose processes cannot be reversed.
examples and suggestions: circling plates and cymbals, falling ping-pong balls, pendulating giant feathers, buzzing/snapping a ruler held over a table-edge, marbles thrown over a marble lane, rubber balls thrown down the stairs, etc.
each player decides by themselves when to play, and how they ‘stage’ their unique, and unmistakable sounds, bearing in mind their approximate duration. frequent accumulation of density and vain repetitions are to be avoided.” (Translation: Alistair Zaldua)